Samba Part 2
|Figure Two: SMB running over TCIP/IP.|
The SMB protocol was designed to run on a PC-Network LAN, using the NetBIOS API to send and receive packets. This did not change until the release of Windows 2000 (W2K), the first version of Windows to support SMB packet transport over TCP/IP without NetBIOS encapsulation. Even so, W2K includes NBT support to maintain compatibility with its predecessors. SMB over TCP/IP is shown in Figure Two.
SMB was originally developed by Intel and Microsoft in the early 1980s and has been the core of DOS and Windows filesharing ever since. Some time around 1996, as part of the buildup to W2K, Microsoft executed a Marketing Upgrade on SMB and renamed it CIFS, or Common Internet Filesystem.
CIFS enables the sharing of directories, files, printers, and other cool computer stuff across a network. To make use of these shared resources you need to be able to find and identify them; you also need to control access so that unauthorized users can't fiddle about where they aren't allowed. This means there is a hefty amount of administration to be managed, so CIFS filesharing comes with an entourage. There are protocols for service announcement, naming, authentication, and authorization. These are separate but intertwined. Some are based on published standards, others are not; most have changed over the years. These days, the term "CIFS" is most often used to refer to the full suite, while "SMB" is typically used when discussing the filesharing protocol itself.
In 1997, Microsoft submitted draft CIFS specifications to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Those drafts have since expired, but there is an effort underway by the Storage Network Industry Association (SNIA) to revive and overhaul them outside of the IETF process.
How It Works
Because of its heritage, the CIFS suite can be a bit awkward. Most of the silliness exists at the NetBIOS layer because, as we have already explained, NetBIOS is an anachronism.
NBT is an implementation of the NetBIOS API on top of TCP/IP, but what RFC 1001 & 1002 actually describe is a system for emulating NetBIOS-based PC-Network LANs over a routed IP inter-network. This is critical to understanding the workings of NBT -- it is a virtual LAN system. The nodes in a CIFS filesharing network are connected to an imaginary wire by imaginary network adapters. It's all make-believe.
There are three key parts to NBT. These are:
- the Name Service
- the Datagram Distribution Service
- the Session Service
The Name Service handles NetBIOS names (the addresses used on the emulated PC-Network LAN). The Datagram Distribution and Session Services carry data between the nodes on the virtual PC-Network LAN.